Materials for conservation

organic consolidants, adhesives and coatings

Velson Horie

Dnes vráceno


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Contents Preface ix Acknowledgements xii Disclaimer xiii About the Author xiv Part I Background Information 1. Introduction 1.1 Use of Resins in Conservation 3 1.2 Setting Processes 4 1.3 Reversibility 5 1.4 History 8 1.5 Information Sources 9 References 11 2. Polymer Science 2.1 Film-Forming Materials 15 2.2 Molecular Weight and Size 19 2.3 Glass Transition Temperature 22 2.4 Mechanical Properties 27 2.5 Optical Properties 32 2.6 Polymerization 33 2.7 Deterioration of Polymers 37 2.8 Testing of Polymers 44 2.9 Identification of Polymers 58 References 59 3. Solvents 3.1 Chemical Type and Purity 67 3.2 Solubility Parameters 69 3.3 Evaporation Rate 75 3.4 Hazards 76 3.5 Solvent-Solute Interaction 81 References 92 4. Adhesion 4.1 Introduction 97 4.2 Wetting the Surface 97 v GO Contents 4.3 Effects of Setting Properties on Adhesion 100 4.4 Strength of Adhesion Bonds 101 4.5 Failure of Joints 103 References 104 Uses and Requirements of Applied Polymers -A Summary 5.1 Stability 105 5.2 Reversibility 105 5.3 Glass Transition Temperature 105 5.4 Setting 105 5.5 Strength 106 5.6 Application 106 5.7 Consolidation 106 5.8 Adhesion 111 5.9 Coatings 117 5.10 Moulding 118 5.11 Specifying a Product for Conservation 118 References 121 Part 11 Survey of Polymers 6. Hydrocarbons 6.1 Polyethene (PE) and Paraffin Wax 125 6.2 Rubber 130 References 132 7. Vinyl Acetate-Derived Polymers 7.1 Poly(Vinyl Acetate) (PVAC) 137 7.2 Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) (PVAL) 142 7.3 Poly(Vinyl Acetals) 145 References 148 8. Acrylic Polymers 8.1 Background 153 8.2 Conservation 159 References 172 9. Miscellaneous Synthetic Thermoplastics 9.1 Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) 179 9.2 Poly(Vinylidene Chloride) (PVDC) 181 9.3 Polystyrene (PS) 181 9.4 Poly(Vinyl Pyrrolidone) (PVP) 182 Contents C vii 3 9.5 Poly(p-Xylylene) (PPX) 182 9.6 Low-Molecular-Weight Resins 183 9.7 Polyethers 188 9.8 Nylons 194 9.9 Poly(2-Ethyl-2-Oxazoline) 196 References 196 10. Polymers Derived from Cellulose 10.1 Cellulose Ethers 206 10.2 Cellulose Esters 212 References 216 11. Natural Water-Soluble Polymers 11.1 Polysaccharides 221 11.2 Proteins 228 References 235 12. Natural Resins 12.1 Terpenes 241 12.2 Monoterpenoids 241 12.3 Diterpenoids 248 12.4 Triterpenoids 253 12.5 Shellac 258 12.6 Beeswax 260 12.7 Carnauba Wax 261 12.8 Oils and Alkyds 261 References 266 13. Cross-Linking Polymers 13.1 Silicon-Containing Polymers 271 13.2 Polyester Resins 283 13.3 Polyurethane Polymers 286 13.4 Epoxy Resins 289 13.5 Formaldehyde Resins 297 References 301 14. Fillers and Colourants 14.1 Fillers 307 14.2 Colourants 307 References 309 • • Contents (vm) Appendices Appendix 1 Polymer Properties 311 Appendix 2.1 Solvent Properties 323 Appendix 2.2 Hydrocarbon Solvents 369 Appendix 2.3 Hazards and Warnings (European Union Labelling) 373 Appendix 2.4 Hazards and Warnings (Globally Harmonized System Labelling) 377 Appendix 3 Polymer Solubility Charts 379 Appendix 4 Glossary 423 Author Index 439 Term Index 453
Detail
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